Using California as a case study, this paper describes the post–World War II history of agricultural pest-management technology, documents the development and use of chemical pesticides, describes the role of public research, and measures the benefits and costs for five important commodities, emphasizing integrated pest management.

See PDF here: The Payoff to Public Investments in Pest-Management R&D: General Issues and a Case Study Emphasizing Integrated Pest Management in California by John D. Mullen, Julian M. Alston, Daniel A. Sumner, Marcia T. Kreith, and Nicolai V. Kuminoff.  (December 2005)