In this paper we compare the farming practices used for a range of California crops with respect to inputs employed (materials, fuel, and labor) and the related costs. We determine the types of substitutions made for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides by organic farmers. In particular, we identify the circumstances under which cultural practices are insufficient and allowed fertilizer supplements and pesticides are employed, illuminating the complexity of organic production and its unique challenges.

Presentation by AIC Associate Director Karen Klonsky for a webinar (3/1/2011) sponsored by NRCS. 

Presentation slides here.

Paper here.